It was the first agreement between the United States and the USSR that limited and restricted their nuclear weapons systems. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union to limit the manufacture of strategic missiles capable of carrying nuclear weapons. The first agreements, known as SALT I and SALT II, were signed in 1972 and 1979 by the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and aimed to limit the arms race of strategic (long-range or intercontinental) nuclear-armed ballistic missiles. For the first time proposed by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1967, strategic arms limitation talks were agreed by the two superpowers in the summer of 1968, and in November 1969 comprehensive negotiations began. Through diplomatic channels in Washington and Moscow, discussions with Soviet representatives within the ENDC and exchanges at the highest level of the two governments, the United States continued to insist on the Soviet obligation to discuss the strategic limits of armaments. But it was not until the following year that evidence of a Soviet reassessment of their position emerged. On 1 July 1968, at the signing of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, President Johnson announced that an agreement had been reached with the Soviet Union to begin talks on limiting and reducing strategic nuclear weapons and ballistic missile defence systems.
The date and location of the talks had not yet been announced when the Soviet Union began its invasion of Czechoslovakia on 20 August, an event that postponed the talks indefinitely. Given the many asymmetries in both countries, the imposition of equivalent restrictions required fairly complex and precise provisions. At the time of the signing, 1,054 land-based ICBMs were in service in the United States, none of which were under construction; the Soviet Union had an estimated 1,618 in operation and construction. The launchers under construction could be completed. Neither party would begin to build additional ICB launchers during the duration of the agreement – which excludes the relocation of existing launchers. Light or older ICBM launchers cannot be converted into launchers for modern heavy ICT. This prevented the Soviet Union from replacing older missiles with missiles such as the SS-9, which was the largest and most powerful missile in the Soviet inventory in 1972 and which was of particular concern to the United States. The agreement allows the contracting parties to withdraw from the agreement with six months` notice if they decide that exceptional events related to the purpose of the agreement have jeopardized their highest interests.
In its unilateral declaration A, the United States stated that if an agreement with more comprehensive restrictions on strategic offensive weapons was not reached within five years, the supreme interests of the United States could be threatened and would provide a basis for the exit of the ABM Treaty. The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) were two bilateral conferences and international treaties that involved the United States and the Soviet Union, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of arms control. The two roundtables and agreements were the points OF SALT I and SALT II. Two initial dissents were obstacles. Soviet officials tried to define as ”strategic” any American or Soviet weapons system capable of reaching the territory of the other party – that is, negotiable in SALT. It would be a system based on the United States, mainly short- and medium-range bombers stationed on aircraft carriers or in Europe, but it would have excluded, for example, Soviet medium-range missiles directed towards Western Europe.